3e de couv.: This volume builds on the contributions presented during the first of the two international colloquiums programmed for the European Project Ethnography Museums and World Cultures – 2008/2013. The colloquium was hosted at the Museo Nazionale Preistorico Etnografico ‘Luigi Pigorini’, in Rome (April 18-20, 2012) and designed by its Ethnography Division. In publishing the reflections of many of the current protagonists in the international debate regarding the possible futures of ethnography museums, it delivers an updated, broad-ranged and multiplex picture of the current predicament of anthropology’s effort to represent culture and to host cultures. Beyond Modernity. Do Ethnography Museums Need Ethnography? re-elaborates Sturtevant’s famous question so as to put ethnography at the core of reflections stemming from the relations between academic anthropology and museums and heritage-related issues of representation, citizenship, and democracy. The discipline’s most productive and vital instrument is put at the service of revitalizing the relations between the anthropologists working inside the museum and those working outside and of the international exchange, ideally contributing towards taking ethnography museums beyond their modern, colonial legacy.